A turbocharger is a type of supercharger, which allows supplying air to the engine cylinders at high pressure, which is provided by the energy released from the combustion of fuel exhaust gases.

By turbocharging increases the working power of the engine, without increasing the internal volume of the engine cylinders and the number of revolutions made by the crankshaft. Among other things, turbocharging allows reducing the voracity of the engine, as well as reducing the toxicity of gases due to more efficient combustion of the air-fuel mixture. If most of the machine parts, including this one, do not work, then such a machine should be given to recycling: https://scrapmycarnear.me.

The structure of the turbocharger system

Turbocharger layout

The turbocharging system consists of the following elements:

air intake and filter;

turbine compressor;

intercooler;

intake manifold;

connecting pipes;

pressure hoses

Turbine compressor (supercharger)

The main element of the turbocharger device, which is designed to increase the working pressure of the air mass in the intake system. The turbocharger consists of turbine and compressor wheels, which are mounted on the rotor shaft. All turbocharger elements are in special protective housings.

The turbine wheel is used to recycle the energy released by the exhaust gases. The wheel and its housing are made of high-strength and heat-resistant materials – steel and ceramic alloys.

The compressor ring is used for sucking the air mass, with its further compression and injection into the engine cylinders.

The turbocharger rings are mounted on the rotor shaft, which rotates in floating bearings. For more efficient operation the bearings are constantly lubricated with oil, which flows through grooves located in the bearing housing.

Intercooler

An intercooler is an air or liquid cooler that is used to cool pre-compressed air in a timely manner, resulting in increased pressure and airflow density.

Charge pressure regulator

The key element of turbocharger control is the boost pressure regulator, which is essentially a bypass valve. The main purpose of the valve is to contain and redirect some of the gases produced to bypass the turbine wheel to reduce the boost pressure. 

The bypass valve can be electrically or pneumatically actuated. The valve is activated by receiving signals from a pressure sensor.

Relief valve

The relief valve is used to prevent pressure peaks in the air mass which often occur when the throttle valve is closed quickly. The excess pressure is either vented to the atmosphere or fed to the compressor inlet.

How turbocharging works

The turbocharger system harnesses the energy of the gases that are produced during fuel combustion. The gases provide the rotational motion of a turbine-type wheel, which in turn triggers the compressor wheel, which is responsible for compressing and forcing the air mass into the system. The air is then cooled by the intercooler and delivered to the cylinders.

Obviously, though the turbocharger is not mechanically connected with the engine crankshaft, its operation and efficiency is in direct dependence on the crankshaft rotation speed. The higher the engine speed, the more efficiently the turbocharger works.

Despite its practicality and efficiency, the turbocharger system has some drawbacks. The key among them is the emergence of turbocharging – a delay in increasing the power of the internal combustion engine.

Such a phenomenon occurs due to the inertia of the system – a delay in the increase in boost pressure when the throttle is pushed hard enough, which can lead to a gap between the required engine power and turbine performance.